Friday, December 23, 2005

AnA sAyFa


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The foundation of the city of Erzurum, which is the greatest city of Eastern Anatolia is assumed to be at the date of 4900 B.C. The region including Erzurum was dominated by various tribes and nations as Urartu, Kimmers, the Scythians, Meds, Persians, Parphts, Romans, Sassanids, Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantine, Mongols and Ilkhanids. The city and the surrounding region was conquered by Ottomans in 1514 and continued their dominance until 1923, in which the Republic of Turkey was founded.
The Congress was assembled in Erzurum (July 23,1919),where the foundations of national strife, national unity and independence movements were laid.

Erzurum Folk Song: Sarı Gelin

Rüstem Paşa Bedesteni It was constructed by the Grand Vizier of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (Magnificent Süleyman) Rüstem Paşa. This two floored building displaying the properties of the Ottoman architecture is currently used as a shopping center. Especially oltu stone dealers are present in the shopping center.

Çobadede Bridge The bridge was constructed by the Vizier Emir Çoban Salduz of Ilhans between 1297 - 98. It is a major creation constructed on the Aras River with seven arched sections.

The Watch Tower The watch Tower was constructed as a minaret to the Inner castle small mosque and is also named as Tray Minaret and Tower. The Watch Tower which is located on the ramparts of the Erzurum Castle which was constructed on a dominant hill over the city and could be seen from every location in the city.

When the Turkish people poured westwards from their Central Asian homelands in the 11th century, they came on horseback into Anatolia, the land which the poet Nazym Hikmet described as ‘stretching like a mare’s head into the Mediterranean’. The horse, which played a central role in Turkish life in the Central Asian steppes, was probably first ridden and harnessed to vehicles in the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea northeast of Anatolia. The Turks brought not only their horses to Anatolia but many related aspects of their culture, one being the equestrian sport known as cirit or jereed. Cirit is a means of improving equestrian skills, and involves two teams of horsemen, each armed with a dried date, oak or poplar stick. These sticks are 70-100 cm in length and 2-3 cm in diameter, with blunt ends. They were originally heavier and thicker, but to reduce the risk of injury players came to prefer sticks made of poplar wood, which become lighter when dried. The players ride horses specially trained for the sport. The teams line up facing one another on the field, each player at a distance of about 100 metres from the next. The person who signals the start of the game is known as the çavus, and before the game he introduces each of the players to the spectators with words of praise. Meanwhile drums and reed pipes play military marches and Köroglu folk airs. At the beginning of the game it is traditional for the youngest rider to trot towards the opposing team, and at a distance of 10-15 metres toss his cirit stick at one of the players. Simultaneously he turns his horse back and tries to reach the safety of his own side, pursued by the other player with a stick in his hand. This process of chasing and fleeing, while trying to hit an opponent with a stick, is the essence of the game, which requires skill and sportsmanship. To hit the horse instead of the rider, which is regarded as the sign of an inexperienced player, is against the rules, and the offender is sent off the field. The referees, who are former cirit players with standing in the community, count the number of hits and at the end of the game announce the winning team. Experienced cirit players rarely miss hitting an opponent, and are skilled at avoiding hits themselves by bending low, hanging down from one side of the horse, and other feats of acrobacy. Part of the skill lies in training the horses so that they play a significant role in the outcome of the game. The formation of the two teams has its traditional etiquette. Care is taken not to put players who are on bad terms in opposing teams, and players who display deliberately hostile behaviour during a match are blacklisted.

Cirit was particularly widespread in the Ottoman Empire from the 16th century onwards, becoming the foremost martial sport. In peace time it was played to improve the cavalry’s attack and defence skills, and during campaigns to whip up their enthusiasm for battle. Some of the sultans are known to have been cirit players, and early Ottoman sultans like Yildirim Bayezid (1389-1402) and Çelebi Mehmed (1413-1421) attached importance to cirit in the training of their armies. A superior class of cavalrymen known as cündi was formed from those skilled at cirit. However, the game was not without its dangers, and injuries and even death from falls in the attempt to catch the flying cirit sticks prompted Mahmud II (1808-1839) to ban the sport altogether after he dissolved the Janissary Corps. Although playing cirit resumed before long, particularly in the provinces, it never recovered the importance of former times. Today cirit is not as widespread as it once was, but is still played as a spectator sport, primarily in Erzurum, but also in the provinces of Artvin, Kars, Bayburt, Diyarbakir, Siirt and Konya. Folklore societies are also attempting to keep this traditional sport alive by organising tournaments.

- Skiing at Palandöken,

- Visiting the double minaret Theology School, Yakutiye Theology School and museums

- Rafting if you happen to go to İspir,

- Visiting Tortum Waterfall and Lake if you happen to go to Tortum,

- Tasting Cağ kebap, su böreği ,ayran çorbası , kadayıf dolması

Rafting The Çoruh River flowing at the border of the İspir District of Erzurum is among the most suitable rivers for rafting. Çoruh attracts the tourists by its deep canyons and hundreds of tourists come to visit these canyons. The World Rafting Championship was arranged at Çoruh River in 1993.

Trekking The daily trekking activities are arranged for foreign and local tourists at the Dumlu Mountains which are at the south of Erzurum. After three hours of walking, the participants of this trekking activity reach to the cold water spring of Karasu Creek(also called as Dumbu Baba) as one of the major branches of Rırat River. After a short rest at this location, the visitors make their return path from the Kırkgöze Village. Similar mountain trekking activities are carried on the Palandöken Mountains, which are to the south of Erzurum.

Ski Centers Palandöken Ski Resort, which is one of the major ski centers of Turkey is inside the borders of Erzurum Province.

City: Erzurum
Provinces: Yakutiye
Surface Area : 3300
Altitude : 1750 m
Protection: N/A
Bird Species: It gains important bird areas status due to turna (15 pairs) population as well as angıt (max. 1500) ve ak kanatlı sumru (max. 15.000), which can be seen with important numbers during immigration seasons.
Main Characteristics: sweet water lake, swamp

Erzurum is connected to the neighboring provinces and to the other regions of the country by a network of highways, railways and air ways.
Highway The bus terminal is at the city center. Terminal Tel : (+90 - 442) 233 12 00
Railway The Railway Station is at the city center. Railway Station Tel: (+90 - 442) 218 19 16
Airway The Erzurum Airport is 10 km away from the city center. From Erzurum Airport, domestic and foreign flights are executed by the connection of Ankara. Airport Tel: (+90 - 442) 327 28 35

The city of Erzurum is located in the region of severe terrestrial Eastern Anatolian climate region. The annual heat average of the city is approximately 6.0 ºC.

Double Minaret Theology School The school was constructed by İlhans at the end of the 13th century. Constructed with the architecture tradition of Anatolian Seljuks the theology school has an open courtyard and is two layered and has two minarets. Double Minaret Theology School is the biggest theology school of Anatolia.

Yakutiye Theology School The theology school was constructed by Hoca Celaleddin Yakut in 1310 B.C. The structure is one of the rare creations of the İlhanlı Period that could withstand until the present day.

Erzurum is famous about its oltu stone craftsmanship. The major souvenirs of the city could be counted as prayer beads, cigarette holders, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips crafted from the oltu stone.

Ulu Mosque (Atabey Cami, Merkez): Mosque, which is thought to be constructed by Saltukoğulları on 1179, had been repaired for several times during the course of time, and used other than its real function from time to time.

Three Kumbets (Center): There are two great characteristics of these magnificent kumbets, which are remaining from Saltukoğulları period. First one is being one of the first pieces of arts in Anatolia, and the second one is all these three kumbets are constructed with completely different architectural style.

The one, which is placed on eight edged plan from three kumbets, is thought to be belong to Emir Saltuk, who is the founder of Saltuklu State. In the other two, which are completely constructed from cut stones, no one knows who is buried.

Location: Pasinler, 40km east of Erzurum in Eastern Anatolia.

Transportation: Transport to Erzurum is easy by bus or air. Pasinler is on the main international highway to the Iranian border.

Water temperature: 39°C - 45°C

pH value: 6.5

Physical and chemical properties: Bicarbonate, chlorine, sodium and carbon dioxide and mildly radioactive.

Recommended: Applications Drinking and bathing

Helps to heal: Rheumatism, mental and muscular fatigue, nervous disorders, joint pain and calcium deposits.

Accommodation: There are better options in Erzurum.

Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı (yayla çorbası) (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), kadayıf dolması could be counted among the traditional meals of Erzurum.